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What are Common Complications of TBI?

When a brain injury occurs, the functions of the nerve cells or tracts of the brain can be affected. If so, the nerve cells or tracts can be unable or have difficulty carrying the messages that tell the brain what to do. This can change the way a patient thinks, acts, feels, and moves the body . It should be noted that neurocognitive disorders can occur immediately after a TBI or after the recovery of consciousness at any age  .



The above information is for your reference only. It cannot be used in place of a consultation with a medical professional nor as a basis of self-diagnosis or for treatment decision. Only your physician can provide you with accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

1. Brain Injury Association of America. About Brain Injury. Adults: What to Expect. Available at: http://www.biausa.org/brain-injury/about-brain-injury/adults-what-to-expect (Accessed on Jun 21, 2017).  2. Hugo J and Ganguli M. Dementia and cognitive impairment: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Geriatr Med 2014;30:421-442.  3. Mayo Clinic. Patient Care and Health Information. Diseases and Conditions. Traumatic Brain Injury. Complications. Available at:http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/traumatic-brain-injury/basics/complications/con-20029302 (Accessed Jun 21, 2017).

Physical changes

Injuries to the base of the skull can damage the nerves that emerge directly from the brain. This may result in paralysis of facial muscles, problems with vision or smell, loss of facial sensation, or difficulty swallowing  .



Cognitive changes

Many people who have had a TBI will experience changes in their thinking (cognitive) skills such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgement, attention, problem-solving, decision-making and so on. Also, language and communication problems are common after TBIs  .


Altered consciousness

Moderate-to-severe TBI can lead to prolonged or permanent changes in the state of consciousness, awareness or responsiveness  .